Skip to content Skip to navigation

Article: A 17-element conodont apparatus from the Soom Shale Lagerstätte (Upper Ordovician), South Africa

Publication: Palaeontology
Volume: 56
Part: 2
Publication Date: March 2013
Page(s): 261 276
Author(s): Richard J. Aldridge, Duncan J. E. Murdock, Sarah E. Gabbott and Johannes N. Theron
Addition Information

How to Cite

ALDRIDGE, R. J., MURDOCK, D. J. E., GABBOTT, S. E., THERON, J. N. 2013. A 17-element conodont apparatus from the Soom Shale Lagerstätte (Upper Ordovician), South Africa. Palaeontology56, 2, 261–276.

Online Version Hosted By

Wiley Online Library
Get Article: Wiley Online Library [Pay-to-View Access] |


  • ALDRIDGE, R. J.2002. Conodonts from the Skomer Volcanic Group (Llandovery Series, Silurian) of Pembrokeshire, Wales. Special Papers in Palaeontology, 67, 15–28.
  • ALDRIDGE, R. J. and THERON, J. N.1993. Conodonts with preserved soft tissue from a new Upper Ordovician Konservat-Lagersttte. Journal of Micropalaeontology, 12, 113–117.
  • ALDRIDGE, R. J., SMITH, M. P., NORBY, R. D. and BRIGGS, D. E. G.1987. The architecture and function of Carboniferous polygnathacean conodont apparatuses. 63–76. InALDRIDGE, R. J. (ed.). Palaeobiology of conodonts. Ellis Horwood, Chichester, 180 pp.
  • ALDRIDGE, R. J., PURNELL, M. A., GABBOTT, S. E. and THERON, J. N.1995. The apparatus architecture and function of Promissum pulchrum Kovács-Endrödy (Conodonta, Upper Ordovician) and the prioniodontid plan. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 347, 275–291.
  • ALDRIDGE, R. J., GABBOTT, S. E. and THERON, J. N.2001. The Soom Shale. 340–342. InBRIGGS, D. E. G. and CROWTHER, P. R. (eds). Palaeobiology II. Blackwell Science, Oxford, 583 pp.
  • ALDRIDGE, R. J., GABBOTT, S. E., SIVETER, L. J. and THERON, J. N.2006. Bromalites from the Soom Shale Lagersttte (Upper Ordovician) of South Africa: palaeoecological and palaeobiological implications. Palaeontology, 49, 857–871.
  • ARMSTRONG, H. A.1990. Conodonts from the Upper Ordovician – Lower Silurian carbonate platform of North Greenland. Bulletin Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse, 159, 1–151.
  • BATESON, W.1886. The ancestry of the Chordata. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, 26, 535–571.
  • BERGSTRÖM, S. M. and SWEET, W. C.1966. Conodonts from the Lexington Limestone (Middle Ordovician) of Kentucky and its lateral equivalents in Ohio and Indiana. Bulletins of American Paleontology, 50 (No. 229), 269–441.
  • COCKS, L. R. M. and FORTEY, R. A.1986. New evidence on the South African Lower Palaeozoic: age and fossils reviewed. Geological Magazine, 123, 437–444.
  • DONOGHUE, P. C. J.1998. Growth and patterning in the conodont skeleton. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 353, 633–666.
  • DONOGHUE, P. C. J., PURNELL, M. A., ALDRIDGE, R. J. and ZHANG SHUNXIN. 2008. The interrelationships of ‘complex’ conodonts (Vertebrata). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 6, 119–153.
  • DZIK, J.1976. Remarks on the evolution of Ordovician conodonts. Acta Palaoentologica Polonica, 21, 395–455.
  • DZIK, J.2000. The origin of the mineral skeleton in chordates. Evolutionary Biology, 31, 105–154.
  • EICHENBERG, W.1930. Conodonten aus dem Culm des Harzes. Palontologische Zeitschrift, 12, 177–182.
  • GABBOTT, S. E.1998. Taphonomy of the Ordovician Soom Shale Lagersttte: an example of soft tissue preservation in clay minerals. Palaeontology, 41, 631–667.
  • GABBOTT, S. E., ALDRIDGE, R. J. and THERON, J. N.1995. A giant conodont with preserved muscle tissue from the Upper Ordovician of South Africa. Nature, 374, 800–803.
  • GABBOTT, S. E., NORRY, M. J., ALDRIDGE, R. J. and THERON, J. N.2001. Preservation of fossils in clay minerals; a unique example from the Upper Ordovician Soom Shale, South Africa. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 53, 237–244.
  • HASS, W. H.1959. Conodonts from the Chappel Limestone of Texas. U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 294-J, 365–400.
  • LÖFGREN, A. and TOLMACHEVA, T.2008. Morphology, evolution and stratigraphic distribution of the Middle Ordovician conodont genus Microzarkodina. Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 99, 27–48.
  • LÖFGREN, A. and ZHANG J I A N H U A2003. Element association and morphology in some Middle Ordovician platform-equipped conodonts. Journal of Paleontology, 77, 721–737.
  • MÄNNIK, P.1998. Evolution and taxonomy of the Silurian conodont Pterospathodus. Palaeontology, 41, 1001–1050.
  • MÄNNIK, P. and ALDRIDGE, R. J.1989. Evolution, taxonomy and relationships of the Silurian conodont Pterospathodus. Palaeontology, 32, 893–906.
  • McCRACKEN, A. D., NOWLAN, G. S. and BARNES, C. R.1980. Gamachignathus, a new multielement conodont genus from the latest Ordovician, Anticosti Island, Québec. Geological Survey of Canada Paper, 80-1C, 103–112.
  • MILLER, C. G. and ALDRIDGE, R. J.1993. The taxonomy and apparatus structure of the Silurian distomodontid conodont Coryssognathus Link & Druce, 1972. Journal of Micropalaeontology, 12, 241–255.
  • MÜLLER, K. J. and MÜLLER, E. M.1957. Early Upper Devonian (Independence) conodonts from Iowa, Part 1. Journal of Paleontology, 31, 1069–1108.
  • NICOLL, R. S.1977. Conodont apparatuses in an Upper Devonian palaeoniscoid fish from the Canning Basin, Western Australia. Bureau of Mineral Resources Journal of Australian Geology and Geophysics, 2, 217–228.
  • OVER, D. J. and CHATTERTON, B. D. E.1987. Silurian conodonts from the southern Mackenzie Mountains, Northwest Territories, Canada. Geologica et Palaeontologica, 21, 1–49.
  • PURNELL, M. A.1993. The Kladognathus apparatus (Conodonta, Carboniferous): homologies with ozarkodinids and the prioniodinid Bauplan. Journal of Paleontology, 67, 875–882.
  • PURNELL, M. A. and DONOGHUE, P. C. J.1997. Architecture and functional morphology of the skeletal apparatus of ozarkodinid conodonts. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 352, 1545–1564.
  • PURNELL, M. A. and DONOGHUE, P. C. J.1998. Skeletal architecture, homologies and taphonomy of ozarkodinid conodonts. Palaeontology, 41, 57–102.
  • PURNELL, M. A., DONOGHUE, P. C. J. and ALDRIDGE, R. J.2000. Orientation and anatomical notation in conodonts. Journal of Paleontology, 74, 113–122.
  • REPETSKI, J. E., PURNELL, M. A. and BARRETT, S. F.1998. The apparatus architecture of Phragmodus. 91–92. InBAGNOLI, G. (ed.). Seventh International Conodont Symposium held in Europe (ECOS VII), Abstracts. Tipografia Compositori, Bologna, 129 pp.
  • RHODES, F. H. T.1953. Some British Lower Palaeozoic conodont faunas. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 237, 261–334.
  • SMITH, M. P.1991. Early Ordovician conodonts of East North Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland, Geoscience, 26, 1–81.
  • STOUGE, S. and BAGNOLI, G.1988. Early Ordovician conodonts from Cow head Peninsula, western Newfoundland. Palaeontographica Italica, 75, 89–178.
  • SWEET, W. C.1988. The Conodonta: morphology, taxonomy, paleoecology, and evolutionary history of a long-extinct animal phylum. Oxford monographs on geology and geophysics No. 10. Clarendon Press, Oxford, x + 212 pp.
  • THERON, J. N., RICKARDS, R. B. and ALDRIDGE, R. J.1990. Bedding plane assemblages of Promissum pulchrum, a new giant Ashgill conodont from the Table Mountain Group, South Africa. Palaeontology, 33, 577–594.
  • TOLMACHEVA, T. Y. U. and PURNELL, M. A.2002. Apparatus composition, growth, and survivorship of the Lower Ordovician conodont Paracordylodus gracilis Lindström, 1955. Palaeontology, 45, 209–228.
  • Van Den BOOGAARD, M.1990. A Ludlow conodont fauna from Irian Jaya (Indonesia). Scripta Geologica, 88, 1–25.
  • VANDENBROUCKE, T. R. A., GABBOTT, S. E., PARIS, F., ALDRIDGE, R. J. and THERON, J. N.2009. Chtinozoans and the age of the Soom Shale, an Ordovician black shale Lagersttte, South Africa. Journal of Micropalaeontology, 28, 53–66.
  • VIIRA, V., ALDRIDGE, R. J. and CURTIS, S.2006. Conodonts of the Kivioli Member, Viivikonna Formation (Upper Ordovician) in the Kohtla section, Estonia. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, Geology, 55, 213–240.
  • WANG C H E N G Y U A N and ALDRIDGE, R. J.2010. Silurian conodonts from the Yangtze Platform, South China. Special Papers in Palaeontology, 83, 1–136.
  • WHITTLE, R. J., GABBOTT, S. E., ALDRIDGE, R. J. and THERON, J. N.2007. Taphonomy and palaeoecology of a Late Ordovician caryocaridid from the Soom Shale Lagersttte, South Africa. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 251, 383–397.
PalAss Go! URL: | Twitter: Share on Twitter | Facebook: Share on Facebook | Google+: Share on Google+