Article: New Jurassic Cercopoidea from China and their evolutionary significance (Insecta: Hemiptera)
A new family, Sinoalidae Wang and Szwedo fam. nov., is described from the Middle Jurassic Daohugou Biota (Inner Mongolia, China). Two new genera with three new species (Sinoala parallelivena Wang and Szwedo gen. et sp. nov., Jiania crebra Wang and Szwedo gen. et sp. nov., and Jiania gracila Wang and Szwedo sp. nov.) are erected based on well-preserved whole-bodied specimens. The morphological characters of Procercopidae and the new family are given, and a key to the species of Sinoalidae is presented. The genera Luanpingia Hong, 1983 and Huabeicercopis Hong, 1983 are revised and attributed to Sinoalidae. The genera Mesocercopis Hong, 1983 and Sinotettegarcta Hong, 1986 are considered junior synonyms of Anthoscytina Hong, 1983. Taxa assigned to Sinoalidae fam. nov. cannot be attributed to any previously known family, but share some general (plesiomorphic) characters with ancient Clypeata, for example, postclypeus distinctly swollen, transversely wrinkled, antenna with a flagellum of a few elongate segments, frons with median ocellus and lateral ocelli on crown. Moreover, the new family is closely related to Procercopidae (Cercopoidea) based on a pronotum with a median incision at the hind margin; tegmen slender, partly punctuate, basal portion of Sc not exceeding apex of basal cell, and hind legs with lateral spines. It has a mixture of ancestral characters shared with Hylicelloidea and Jurassic Procercopidae and some derived characters. Therefore, it is tentatively placed in Cercopoidea. A preliminary phylogram of Clypeata is presented based on the combination of fossil and morphological data.