Skip to content Skip to navigation

Article: Taphonomy and affinity of an enigmatic Silurian vertebrate, Jamoytius kerwoodi White

Publication: Palaeontology
Volume: 53
Part: 6
Publication Date: November 2010
Page(s): 1393 1409
Author(s): Robert S. Sansom, Kim Freedman, Sarah E. Gabbott, Richard J. Aldridge and Mark A. Purnell
Addition Information

How to Cite

SANSOM, R. S., FREEDMAN, K., GABBOTT, S. E., ALDRIDGE, R. J., PURNELL, M. A. 2010. Taphonomy and affinity of an enigmatic Silurian vertebrate, Jamoytius kerwoodi White. Palaeontology53, 6, 1393–1409.

Online Version Hosted By

Wiley Online Library
Get Article: Wiley Online Library [Pay-to-View Access] |


  • ALDRIDGE, R. J. and THERON, J. N. 1993. Conodonts with preserved soft tissue from a new Ordovician Konservat-Lagersttte. Journal of Micropalaeontology, 12, 113–117.
  • ALDRIDGE, R. J., BRIGGS, D. E. G., SMITH, M. P., CLARKSON, E. K. and CLARK, N. D. L. 1993. The anatomy of conodonts. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 340, 405–421.
  • BAGENAL, T. B. 1973. Identification of British fishes. Houlton Educational Publications, Amsterdam, 199 pp.
  • BALFOUR, F. M. 1876. Monograph on the development of elasmobranch fishes. Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, 10, 377–441.
  • BARDACK, D. and RICHARDSON, E. R. 1977. New agnathous fishes from the Pennsylvanian of Illinois. Fieldiana Geology, 33, 489–510.
  • BEMIS, W. E. and GRANDE, L. 1999. Development of the median fins of the North American paddlefish (Polyodon spathula), and a reevaluation of the lateral fin-fold hypothesis. 41–68. In ARRATIA, G. and SCHULTZE, H. P. (eds). Mesozoic fishes 2 – systematics and fossil record. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, München, 604 pp.
  • BRIGGS, D. E. G. and CLARKSON, E. K. 1987. An enigmatic chordate from the Lower Carboniferous Granton ‘shrimp-bed’ of the Edinburgh district, Scotland. Lethaia, 20, 107–115.
  • BRIGGS, D. E. G. and WILLIAMS, S. H. 1981. The restoration of flattened fossils. Lethaia, 14, 157–164.
  • BUTTERFIELD, N. J. 2002. Leanchoilia guts and the interpretation of three-dimensional structures in Burgess Shale-type fossils. Paleobiology, 28, 155–171.
  • CHANG, M.-M., ZHANG, J.-Y. and MIAO, D. 2006. A lamprey from the Cretaceous Jehol biota of China. Nature, 441, 972–974.
  • COATES, M. I. 1994. The origin of vertebrate limbs. Development, 120 (Suppl. 1), 169–180.
  • DELARBRE, C., GALLUT, C., BARRIEL, V., JANVIER, P. and GACHELIN, G. 2002. Complete mitochondrial DNA of the hagfish, Eptatretus burgeri: the comparative analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequence strongly supports the cyclostome monophyly. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 22, 184–192.
  • DELSUC, F., BRINKMANN, H., CHOURROUT, D. and PHILIPPE, H. 2006. Tunicates and not cephalochordates are the closest living relatives of vertebrates. Nature, 439, 965–968.
  • DENISON, R. H. 1947. The exoskeleton of Tremataspis. American Journal of Science, 245, 337–365.
  • DONOGHUE, P. C. J. and PURNELL, M. A. 2009. Distinguishing heat from light in debate over controversial fossils. BioEssays, 31, 178–189.
  • DONOGHUE, P. C. J. and SMITH, M. P. 2001. The anatomy of Turinia pagei (Powrie), and the phylogenetic status of the Thelodonti. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences, 92, 15–37.
  • DONOGHUE, P. C. J., FOREY, P. L. and ALDRIDGE, R. J. 2000. Conodont affinity and chordate phylogeny. Biological Reviews, 75, 191–251.
  • DONOGHUE, P. C. J., SMITH, M. P. and SANSOM, I. J. 2003. The origin and early evolution of chordates: molecular clocks and the fossil record. 190–223. In DONOGHUE, P. C. J. and SMITH, M. P. (eds). Telling the evolutionary time: molecular clocks and the fossil record. CRC Press, London, 288 pp.
  • FERNANDES, R. J. and EYRE, D. R. 1999. The elastin-like protein matrix of lamprey branchial cartilage is cross-linked by lysyl pyridinoline. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 261, 635–640.
  • FITZHUGH, K., SROKA, S. D., KRUTY, S., HENDERSON, M. B. and HAY, A. A. 1997. Polychaete worms. 64–83. In SHABICA, C. W. and HAY, A. A. (eds). Richardson’s guide to the fossil fauna of Mazon Creek. Northeastern Illinois University, Chicago, 308 pp.
  • FOREY, P. L. 1984. Yet more reflections on agnathan-gnathostome relationships. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 4, 330–343.
  • FOREY, P. L. 1995. Agnathans recent and fossil, and the origin of jawed vertebrates. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 5, 267–303.
  • FOREY, P. L. and GARDINER, B. G. 1981. J. A. Moy-Thomas and his association with the British Museum (Natural History). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Geology, 35, 131–144.
  • FOREY, P. L. and JANVIER, P. 1993. Agnathans and the origin of jawed vertebrates. Nature, 361, 129–134.
  • FOREY, P. L. and KITCHING, I. J. 2000. Experiments in coding multistate characters. 54–80. In SCOTLAND, R. and PENNINGTON, R. T. (eds). Homology and systematics: coding characters for phylogenetic analysis. Taylor and Francis/Systematics Association, London, 217 pp.
  • FREEDMAN, K. 1999. Aspects of the taphonomy of jawless vertebrates. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Leicester, 166 pp.
  • GABBOTT, S. E., HOU, X.-G., NORRY, M. J. and SIVETER, D. J. 2004. Preservation of Early Cambrian animals of the Chengjiang biota. Geology, 32, 901–904.
  • GESS, R. W., COATES, M. I. and RUBIDGE, B. S. 2006. A lamprey from the Devonian period of South Africa. Nature, 443, 981–984.
  • HOU, X.-G., ALDRIDGE, R. J., SIVETER, D. J., SIVETER, D. J. and FENG, X.-H. 2002. New evidence on the anatomy and phylogeny of the earliest vertebrates. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 269, 1865–1869.
  • JANVIER, P. 1981. The phylogeny of the Craniata, with particular reference to the significance of fossil ‘agnathans’. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 1, 121–159.
  • JANVIER, P. 1996a. Early vertebrates. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 393 pp.
  • JANVIER, P. 1996b. The dawn of the vertebrates: characters versus common ascent in the rise of current vertebrate phylogenies. Palaeontology, 39, 259–287.
  • JANVIER, P. 1996c. The Miguasha ‘Anaspida’. 134–140. In SCHULTZE, H. P. (ed.). Devonian fishes and plants of Miguasha, Quebec, Canada. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, Munich, 374 pp.
  • JANVIER, P. and ARSENAULT, M. 2002. Calcification of early vertebrate cartilage. Nature, 417, 609.
  • JANVIER, P. and ARSENAULT, M. 2007. The anatomy of Euphanerops longaevus Woodward, 1900, an anaspid-like jawless vertebrate from the Upper Devonian of Miguasha, Quebec, Canada. Geodiversitas, 29, 143–216.
  • JANVIER, P. and BUSCH, R. M. 1984. Jamoytius-like vertebrates from the Lower Devonian Manlius Formation of New York State. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 4, 501–506.
  • JANVIER, P. and LUND, R. 1983. Hardistiella montanensis n.gen. et sp. (Petromyzontida) from the Lower Carboniferous of Montana, with remarks on the affinities of lampreys. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 2, 407–413.
  • JARVIK, E. 1980. Basic structure and evolution of vertebrates, Vol. 2. Academic Press, London, 337 pp.
  • KHONSARI, R. H., LI, B., VERNIER, P., NORTHCUTT, R. G. and JANVIER, P. 2009. Agnathan brain anatomy and craniate phylogeny. Acta Zoologica, 90 (Suppl. 1), 52–68.
  • LØVTRUP, S. 1977. The phylogeny of Vertebrata. Wiley and Sons, London, 330 pp.
  • MADDISON, D. R. and MADDISON, W. P. 2003. MacClade 4.06. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.
  • MALLAT, J. 1984. Feeding ecology of the earliest vertebrates. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 82, 261–272.
  • MARINELLI, W. and STRENGER, A. 1954. Vergleichende Anatomie und Morphologie der Wirberltiere, Heft I. Lampetra fluviatilis. Franz Deuticke, Vienna, 78 pp.
  • MÄRSS, T. and RITCHIE, A. 1998. Articulated thelodonts (Agnatha) of Scotland. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences, 88, 143–195.
  • MÄRSS, T., TURNER, S. and KARATAJŪTE-TALIMAA, V. N. 2007. “Agnatha” II: Thelodonti. Handbook of Paleoichthyology, Vol. 1B. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, München, 143 pp.
  • NEWMAN, M. J. 2002. A new naked jawless vertebrate from the Middle Devonian of Scotland. Palaeontology, 45, 933–941.
  • NEWMAN, M. J. and TREWIN, N. H. 2001. A new jawless vertebrate from the Middle Devonian of Scotland. Palaeontology, 44, 43–51.
  • PURNELL, M. A. and DONOGHUE, P. C. J. 1999. Flattened fossils, physical modelling and the restoration of collapsed skeletons. 91–99. In SAVAZZI, E. (ed.). Functional morphology of the invertebrate skeleton. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 706 pp.
  • RIEPPEL, O. and KEARNEY, M. 2002. Similarity. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 75, 59–82.
  • RITCHIE, A. 1960. A new interpretation of Jamoytius kerwoodi White. Nature, 188, 647–649.
  • RITCHIE, A. 1963. Palaeontological studies on Scottish Silurian fish beds. Unpublished thesis, University of Edinburgh.
  • RITCHIE, A. 1964. New light on the morphology of the Norwegian Anaspida. Skrifter Utgitt Av Det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi I Oslo 1. Matematisk-Naturvidenskapelige Klasse, 14, 5–35.
  • RITCHIE, A. 1968. New evidence on Jamoytius kerwoodi White, an important ostracoderm from the Silurian of Lanarkshire, Scotland. Palaeontology, 11, 21–39.
  • RITCHIE, A. 1984. Conflicting interpretations of the Silurian agnathan, Jamoytius. Scottish Journal of Geology, 20, 249–256.
  • RITCHIE, A. 1985. Ainiktozoon loganese Scourfield, a protochordate from the Silurian of Scotland. Alcheringa, 9, 115–142.
  • ROBSON, P., WRIGHT, G. M., YOUSON, J. H. and KEELEY, F. W. 1997. A family of non-collagen-based cartilages in the skeleton of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 118, 71–78.
  • SANSOM, I. J., DONOGHUE, P. C. J. and ALBANESI, G. 2005. Histology and affinity of the earliest armoured vertebrate. Biology Letters, 1, 446–449.
  • SANSOM, R. S. 2008. The origin and early evolution of the Osteostraci (Vertebrata): a phylogeny for the Thyestiida. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 6, 317–332.
  • SANSOM, R. S. 2009. Phylogeny, classification and character polarity of the Osteostraci (Vertebrata). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 7, 95–115.
  • SANSOM, R. S., GABBOTT, S. E. and PURNELL, M. A. 2010a. Non-random decay of characters causes bias in fossil interpretation. Nature, 463, 797–800.
  • SANSOM, R. S., GABBOTT, S. E. and PURNELL, M. A. 2010b. Decay of vertebrate characters in hagfish and lamprey (Cyclostomata) and the implications for the vertebrate fossil record. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, doi: 10.1098/rspb.2010.1641.
  • SHU, D.-G., CONWAY-MORRIS, S., HAN, J., ZHANG, Z.-F., YASUI, K., JANVIER, P., CHEN, L., ZHANG, X.-L., LIU, J.-N. and LIU, H.-Q. 2003. Head and backbone of the Early Cambrian vertebrate Haikouichthys. Nature, 421, 536–539.
  • SHU, D.-G., LUO, H.-L., CONWAY-MORRIS, S., ZHANG, X.-L., HU, S.-X., CHEN, L., HAN, J., ZHU, M. and CHEN, L.-Z. 1999. Lower Cambrian vertebrates from South China. Nature, 402, 42–46.
  • SHUBIN, N., TABIN, C. and CARROLL, S. 1997. Fossils, genes and the evolution of animal limbs. Nature, 388, 639–648.
  • STRONG, E. and LIPSCOMB, D. 1999. Character coding and inapplicable data. Cladistics, 15, 363–371.
  • SWOFFORD, D. L. 2002. PAUP*. Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (*and other methods) Version 4. Sinuaer Associates, Sunderland, MA.
  • TARLO, L. B. H. 1967. Agnatha. 629–636. In HARLAND, W. B. (ed.). The fossil record. London Geological Society, London, 827 pp.
  • THACHER, J. K. 1877. Median and paired fins, a contribution to the history of vertebrate limbs. Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Science, 3, 281–310.
  • TURNER, S. 1991. Monophyly and interrelationships of the Thelodonti. 87–119. In CHANG, M.-M., LIU, Y.-H. and ZHANG, G.-R. (eds). Early vertebrates and related problems of evolutionary biology. Science Press, Beijing, 514 pp.
  • VAN DER BRUGGHEN, W., SCHRAM, F. R. and MARTILL, D. M. 1997. The fossil Ainiktozoon is an arthropod. Nature, 385, 589–590.
  • WANG, N.-Z., DONOGHUE, P. C. J., SMITH, M. M. and SANSOM, I. J. 2005. Histology of the galeaspid dermoskeleton and endoskeleton, and the origin and early evolution of the vertebrate cranial endoskeleton. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 25, 745–756.
  • WESTOLL, T. S. 1958. The lateral fin-fold theory and the pectoral fins of ostracoderms and early fishes. 180–211. In WESTOLL, T. S. (ed.) Studies on fossil vertebrates. The Athlone Press, London, 263 pp.
  • WHITE, E. I. 1946. Jamoytius kerwoodi, a new chordate from the Silurian of Lanarkshire. Geological Magazine, 83, 89–97.
  • WOODWARD, A. S. 1900. On a new ostracoderm (Euphanerops longaevus) from the Upper Devonian of Scaumenac Bay, Province of Quebec, Canada. Magazine of Natural Hitsory, `series 7, 5, 416–419.
  • WRIGHT, G. M., KEELEY, F. W. and DEMONT, M. E. 1998. Hagfish cartilage. 160–170. In JØRGENSEN, J. M., LOMHOLT, J. P., WEBER, R. E. and MALTE, H. (eds). The biology of hagfishes. Chapman and Hall, London, 578 pp.
  • YOUNG, J. Z. 1981. The life of vertebrates. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 645 pp.
  • ZHANG, G.-J., MIYAMOTO, M. M. and COHN, M. J. 2006. Lamprey type II collagen and Sox9 reveal an ancient origin of the vertebrate collagenous skeleton. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103, 3180–3185.
  • ZHANG, X.-G. and HOU, X.-G. 2004. Evidence for a single median fin-fold and tail in the Lower Cambrian vertebrate, Haikouichthys ercaicunensis. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 17, 1162–1166.
PalAss Go! URL: | Twitter: Share on Twitter | Facebook: Share on Facebook | Google+: Share on Google+