Skip to content Skip to navigation

Article: Geographical, environmental and intrinsic biotic controls on Phanerozoic marine diversification

Publication: Palaeontology
Volume: 53
Part: 6
Publication Date: November 2010
Page(s): 1211 1235
Author(s): John Alroy
Addition Information

How to Cite

ALROY, J. 2010. Geographical, environmental and intrinsic biotic controls on Phanerozoic marine diversification. Palaeontology53, 6, 1211–1235.

Online Version Hosted By

Wiley Online Library
Get Article: Wiley Online Library [Pay-to-View Access] |


  • ABERHAN, M., WEIDEMEYER, S., KIESSLING, W., SCASSO, R. A. and MEDINA, F. A. 2007. Faunal evidence for reduced productivity and uncoordinated recovery in Southern Hemisphere Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary sections. Geology, 35, 227–230.
  • ALLISON, P. A. and BRIGGS, D. E. G. 1993. Paleolatitudinal sampling bias, Phanerozoic species diversity, and the end-Permian extinction. Geology, 21, 65–68.
  • ALROY, J. 1996. Constant extinction, constrained diversification, and uncoordinated stasis in North American mammals. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 127, 285–311.
  • ALROY, J. 2000. New methods for quantifying macroevolutionary patterns and processes. Paleobiology, 26, 707–733.
  • ALROY, J. 2008. Dynamics of origination and extinction in the fossil record. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 105, 11536–11542.
  • ALROY, J. 2010. The shifting balance of diversity among major marine animal groups. Science, 329, 1191–1194.
  • ALROY, J., MARSHALL, C. R., BAMBACH, R. K., BEZUSKO, K., et al. (21 others) 2001. Effects of sampling standardization on estimates of Phanerozoic marine diversification. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 98, 6261–6266.
  • ALROY, J., ABERHAN, M., BOTTJER, D. J., FOOTE, M., et al. (31 others) 2008. Phanerozoic trends in the diversity of marine invertebrates. Science, 321, 97–100.
  • BAMBACH, R. K. 1999. Energetics in the global marine fauna: a connection between terrestrial diversification and change in the marine biosphere. Geobios, 32, 131–144.
  • BENTON, M. J. 1995. Diversification and extinction in the history of life. Science, 268, 52–58.
  • BENTON, M. J. 2009. The Red Queen and the Court Jester: species diversity and the role of biotic and abiotic factors through time. Science, 323, 728–732.
  • BENTON, M. J. and EMERSON, B. C. 2007. How did life become so diverse? The dynamics of diversification according to the fossil record and molecular phylogenetics. Palaeontology, 50, 23–40.
  • BRIGGS, D. E. G., FORTEY, R. A. and WILLS, M. A. 1992. Morphological disparity in the Cambrian. Science, 256, 1670–1673.
  • CHERNS, L. and WRIGHT, V. P. 2000. Missing molluscs as evidence of large-scale, early skeletal aragonite dissolution in a Silurian sea. Geology, 28, 791–794.
  • CLAPHAM, M. E., SHEN, S. and BOTTJER, D. J. 2009. The double mass extinction revisited: reassessing the severity, selectivity, and causes of the end-Guadalupian biotic crisis (Late Permian). Paleobiology, 35, 32–50.
  • COLWELL, R. K. and CODDINGTON, J. A. 1994. Estimating terrestrial biodiversity through extrapolation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 345, 101–118.
  • CONNOLLY, S. R. and MILLER, A. I. 2002. Global Ordovician faunal transitions in the marine benthos: ultimate causes. Paleobiology, 28, 26–40.
  • COPPER, P. 1988. Ecological succession in Phanerozoic reef ecosystems: is it real? Palaios, 3, 136–151.
  • ERWIN, D. H. 2009. Climate as a driver of evolutionary change. Current Biology, 19, R575–R583.
  • FINNEGAN, S. and DROSER, M. L. 2005. Relative and absolute abundance of trilobites and rhynchonelliform brachiopods across the Lower/Middle Ordovician boundary, eastern Basin and Range. Paleobiology, 31, 480–502.
  • FISCHER, A. G. 1960. Latitudinal variations in organic diversity. Evolution, 14, 64–81.
  • FOOTE, M. 1994. Temporal variation in extinction risk and temporal scaling of extinction metrics. Paleobiology, 20, 424–444.
  • FOOTE, M. and SEPKOSKI, J. J. Jr 1999. Absolute measures of the completeness of the fossil record. Nature, 398, 415–417.
  • GOOD, I. J. 1953. The population frequencies of species and the estimation of population parameters. Biometrika, 40, 237–264.
  • GOTELLI, N. J. and COLWELL, R. K. 2001. Quantifying biodiversity: procedures and pitfalls in the measurement and comparison of species richness. Ecology Letters, 4, 379–391.
  • HANSEN, T. A., FARRELL, B. R. and UPSHAW, B. III 1993. The first 2 million years after the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in east Texas: rate and paleoecology of the molluscan recovery. Paleobiology, 19, 251–265.
  • HENDY, A. J. W. 2009. The influence of lithification on Cenozoic marine biodiversity trends. Paleobiology, 35, 51–62.
  • HOEGH-GULDBERG, O., MUMBY, P. J., HOOTEN, A. J., STENECK, R. S., et al. (13 others) 2007. Coral reefs under rapid climate change and ocean acidification. Science, 318, 1737–1742.
  • HOFFMAN, A. and FENSTER, E. J. 1986. Randomness and diversification in the Phanerozoic: a simulation. Palaeontology, 29, 655–663.
  • HURLBERT, S. H. 1971. The nonconcept of species diversity: a critique and alternative parameters. Ecology, 52, 577–586.
  • KAMMER, T. W., BAUMILLER, T. K. and AUSICH, W. I. 1998. Evolutionary significance of differential species longevity in Osagean-Meramecian (Mississippian) crinoid clades. Paleobiology, 24, 155–176.
  • KIESSLING, W. 2002. Secular variations in the Phanerozoic reef ecosystem. Phanerozoic Reef Patterns, SEPM Special Publication, 72, 625–690.
  • KIESSLING, W. 2009. Geologic and biologic controls on the evolution of reefs. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 40, 173–192.
  • KIESSLING, W. and ABERHAN, M. 2007. Environmental determinants of marine benthic biodiversity dynamics through Triassic-Jurassic time. Paleobiology, 33, 414–434.
  • KIESSLING, W., ABERHAN, M., BRENNEIS, B. and WAGNER, P. J. 2007. Extinction trajectories of benthic organisms across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 244, 201–222.
  • KIESSLING, W., ABERHAN, M. and VILLIER, L. 2008. Phanerozoic trends in skeletal mineralogy driven by mass extinctions. Nature Geoscience, 1, 527–580.
  • KIESSLING, W., SIMPSON, C. and FOOTE, M. 2010. Reefs as cradles of evolution and sources of biodiversity in the Phanerozoic. Science, 327, 196–198.
  • KNOLL, A. H., NIKLAS, K. J. and TIFFNEY, B. H. 1979. Phanerozoic land-plant diversity in North America. Science, 206, 1400–1402.
  • KNOLL, A. H., BAMBACH, R. K., PAYNE, J. L., PRUSS, S. and FISCHER, W. W. 2007. Paleophysiology and end-Permian mass extinction. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 256, 295–313.
  • KOMINZ, M. A., MILLER, K. G. and BROWNING, J. V. 1998. Long-term and short-term global Cenozoic sea-level estimates. Geology, 26, 311–314.
  • KRUG, A. Z. and PATZKOWSKY, M. E. 2004. Rapid recovery from the Late Ordovician mass extinction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 101, 17605–17610.
  • MacARTHUR, R. H. and WILSON, E. O. 1967. The theory of island biogeography. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 203 pp.
  • MANDER, L. and TWITCHETT, R. J. 2008. Quality of the Triassic–Jurassic bivalve record in northwest Europe. Palaeontology, 51, 1213–1223.
  • McELWAIN, J. C., BEERLING, D. J. and WOODWARD, F. I. 2007. Fossil plants and global warming at the Triassic–Jurassic boundary. Science, 285, 1386–1390.
  • McELWAIN, J. C., WAGNER, P. J. and HESSELBO, S. P. 2009. Fossil plant relative abundances indicate sudden loss of Late Triassic biodiversity in East Greenland. Science, 324, 1554–1556.
  • McGOWAN, A. J. and SMITH, A. B. 2008. Are global Phanerozoic marine diversity curves truly global? A study of the relationship between regional rock records and global Phanerozoic marine diversity. Paleobiology, 34, 80–103.
  • McKINNEY, M. L. and OYEN, C. W. 1989. Causation and nonrandomness in biological and geological time series: temperature as a proximal control of extinction and diversity. Palaios, 4, 3–15.
  • MILLER, A. I. 1997. Comparative diversification dynamics among palaeocontinents during the Ordovician Radiation. Geobios, 30(suppl. 1), 397–406.
  • MILLER, A. I. 1998. Biotic transitions in global marine diversity. Science, 281, 1157–1160.
  • MILLER, A. I. and FOOTE, M. 1996. Calibrating the Ordovician radiation of marine life: implications for Phanerozoic diversity trends. Paleobiology, 22, 304–309.
  • NEWELL, N. D. 1952. Periodicity in invertebrate evolution. Journal of Paleontology, 26, 371–385.
  • NEWELL, N. D. 1959. Adequacy of the fossil record. Journal of Paleontology, 33, 488–499.
  • OLSZEWSKI, T. D. and PATZKOWSKY, M. E. 2001. Evaluating taxonomic turnover: Pennsylvanian–Permian brachiopods and bivalves of the North American Midcontinent. Paleobiology, 27, 646–668.
  • PAUL, C. R. C. 1982. The adequacy of the fossil record. 75–117. In JOYSEY, K. A. and FRIDAY, A. E. (eds). Problems of phylogenetic reconstruction. Academic Press, London, 442 pp.
  • PETERS, S. E. 2004. Evenness of Cambrian–Ordovician benthic marine communities in North America. Paleobiology, 30, 325–346.
  • PETERS, S. E. 2005. Geologic constraints on the macroevolutionary history of marine animals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 102, 12326–12331.
  • PETERS, S. E. and FOOTE, M. 2001. Biodiversity in the Phanerozoic: a reinterpretation. Paleobiology, 27, 583–601.
  • RAUP, D. M. 1972. Taxonomic diversity during the Phanerozoic. Science, 177, 1065–1071.
  • RAUP, D. M. 1975. Taxonomic diversity estimation using rarefaction. Paleobiology, 1, 333–342.
  • RAUP, D. M. 1976. Species diversity in the Phanerozoic: an interpretation. Paleobiology, 2, 289–297.
  • RAUP, D. M. 1979. Biases in the fossil record of species and genera. Bulletin of the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, 13, 85–91.
  • RAUP, D. M. 1985. Mathematical models of cladogenesis. Paleobiology, 11, 42–52.
  • RAUP, D. M. and SEPKOSKI, J. J. JR 1982. Mass extinctions in the marine fossil record. Science, 215, 1501–1503.
  • RAUP, D. M., GOULD, S. J., SCHOPF, T. M. and SIMBERLOFF, D. S. 1973. Stochastic models of phylogeny and the evolution of diversity. Journal of Geology, 81, 525–542.
  • ROY, K., JABLONSKI, D. and VALENTINE, J. W. 1996. Higher taxa in biodiversity studies: patterns from eastern Pacific marine molluscs. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 351, 1605–1613.
  • ROY, K., JABLONSKI, D., VALENTINE, J. W. and ROSENBERG, G. 1998. Marine latitudinal gradients: tests of causal hypotheses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 95, 3699–3702.
  • ROY, K., JABLONSKI, D. and VALENTINE, J. W. 2000. Dissecting latitudinal diversity gradients: functional groups and clades of marine bivalves. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 267, 293–299.
  • SCHOPF, T. M. 1974. Permo-Triassic extinctions: relation to sea-floor spreading. Journal of Geology, 82, 129–143.
  • SCHULTE, P., ALEGRET, L., ARENILLAS, I., ARZ, J. A., et al. (37 others) 2010. The Chicxulub asteroid impact and mass extinction at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. Science, 327, 1214–1218.
  • SEPKOSKI, J. J. JR 1976. Species diversity in the Phanerozoic: species-area effects. Paleobiology, 2, 298–303.
  • SEPKOSKI, J. J. JR 1978. A kinetic model of Phanerozoic taxonomic diversity. I. Analysis of marine orders. Paleobiology, 4, 223–251.
  • SEPKOSKI, J. J. JR 1979. A kinetic model of Phanerozoic taxonomic diversity. II. Early Phanerozoic families and multiple equilibria. Paleobiology, 5, 222–251.
  • SEPKOSKI, J. J. JR 1984. A kinetic model of Phanerozoic taxonomic diversity. III. Post-Paleozoic families and mass extinctions. Paleobiology, 10, 246–267.
  • SEPKOSKI, J. J. JR 1988. Alpha, beta, or gamma: where does all the diversity go? Paleobiology, 14, 221–234.
  • SEPKOSKI, J. J. JR 1997. Biodiversity: past, present, and future. Journal of Paleontology, 71, 533–539.
  • SEPKOSKI, J. J. JR, BAMBACH, R. K., RAUP, D. M. and VALENTINE, J. W. 1981. Phanerozoic marine diversity: a strong signal from the fossil record. Nature, 293, 435–437.
  • SESSA, J. A., PATZKOWKSY, M. E. and BRALOWER, T. J. 2009. The impact of lithification on the diversity, size distribution, and recovery dynamics of marine invertebrate assemblages. Geology, 37, 115–118.
  • SHEEHAN, P. M. 1977. Species diversity in the Phanerozoic: a reflection of labor by systematists? Paleobiology, 3, 325–328.
  • SIMBERLOFF, D. S. 1974. Permo-Triassic extinctions: effects of area on biotic equilibrium. Journal of Geology, 81, 267–274.
  • SIMPSON, G. G. 1960. The history of life. 117–180. In TAX, S. (ed.). Evolution after Darwin. Volume I. The evolution of life. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 629 pp.
  • SMITH, A. B. 2001. Large-scale heterogeneity of the fossil record: implications for Phanerozoic biodiversity studies. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 356, 351–367.
  • STANLEY, G. D. JR 1988. The history of early Mesozoic reef communities: a three-step process. Palaios, 3, 170–183.
  • STEHLI, F. G., DOUGLAS, R. D. and NEWELL, N. D. 1969. Generation and maintenance of gradients in taxonomic diversity. Science, 164, 947–949.
  • TIPPER, J. C. 1979. Rarefaction and rarefiction: the use and abuse of a method in paleoecology. Paleobiology, 5, 423–434.
  • VALENTINE, J. W. 1969. Patterns and taxonomic and ecological structure of the shelf benthos during Phanerozoic time. Palaeontology, 12, 684–709.
  • VALENTINE, J. W. 1970. How many marine invertebrate fossil species? A new approximation. Journal of Paleontology, 44, 410–415.
  • VAN VALEN, L. 1973. A new evolutionary law. Evolutionary Theory, 1, 1–30.
  • WESTROP, S. R. and ADRAIN, J. M. 1998. Trilobite alpha diversity and the reorganization of Ordovician benthic marine communities. Paleobiology, 24, 1–16.
  • WILF, P., JOHNSON, K. R. and HUBER, B. T. 2003. Correlated terrestrial and marine evidence for global climate changes before mass extinction at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 100, 599–604.
PalAss Go! URL: | Twitter: Share on Twitter | Facebook: Share on Facebook | Google+: Share on Google+