Skip to content Skip to navigation

Article: Origins and biomechanical evolution of teeth in echinoids and their relatives

Publication: Palaeontology
Volume: 52
Part: 5
Publication Date: September 2009
Page(s): 1149 1168
Author(s): Mike Reich and Andrew B. Smith
Addition Information

How to Cite

REICH, M., SMITH, A. B. 2009. Origins and biomechanical evolution of teeth in echinoids and their relatives. Palaeontology52, 5, 1149–1168.

Online Version Hosted By

Wiley Online Library
Get Article: Wiley Online Library [Pay-to-View Access] |


  • BINDEMANN, W. 1938. Ein Echinid mit Lanterne aus dem Kulm von Herborn, Meekechinus? Herbornensis n. sp. Senckenbergiana, 20, 203–220.
  • BIRENHEIDE, R., TSUCHI, A. and MOTOKAWA, T. 1996. To be stiff or to be soft – the dilemma of the echinoid tooth ligament. II. Mechanical properties. Biological Bulletin, 190, 231–236.
  • BOCZAROWSKI, A. 2001. Isolated sclerites of Devonian non-pelmatozoan echinoderms. Palaeontologica Polonica, 59, 3–220.
  • CALNER, M., JEPPSSON, L. and MUNNECKE, A. 2004a. The Silurian of Gotland – Part II: review of the stratigraphic framework, event stratigraphy, and stable carbon and oxygen isotope development. In MUNNECKE, A., SERVAIS, T. and SCHULBERT, C. (eds). International symposium on Early Palaeozoic palaeogeography and palaeoclimate. Erlanger Geologische Abhandlungen, Sonderband , 5 , 113–130.
  • CALNER, M., JEPPSON, L. and MUNNECKE, A. 2004b. The Silurian of Gotland – Part II: guide to the IGCP 503 field meeting 2004. In MUNNECKE, A., SERVAIS, T. and SCHULBERT, C. (eds). International symposium on Early Palaeozoic palaeogeography and palaeoclimate. Erlanger Geologische Abhandlungen, Sonderband , 5 , 131–151.
  • CANDIA CARNEVALI, M. D., WILKIE, I. C., LUCCA, E., ANDRIETTI, F. and MELONE, G. 1993. The Aristotle’s lantern of the sea-urchin Stylocidaris affinis (Echinoida, Cidaridae): functional morphology of the musculo-skeletal system. Zoomorphology, 113, 173–189.
  • DUBOIS, P. and AMEYE, L. 1995. Regeneration of spines and pedicellariae in echinoderms: a review. Microscopy Research and Technique, 55, 427–437.
  • EISERHARDT, K. 1992. Die Acritarchen des Öjlemyrflintes. Palaeontographica B, Palobotanik, 226, 1–132.
  • ELLERS, O. and TELFORD, M. 1991. Forces generated by the jaws of clypeasteroids. Journal of Experimental Biology, 155, 585–603.
  • GRAHN, Y. 1982. Palaeobiology and biostratigraphy of Ordovician Chitinozoa from Sweden. Acta Universitastis Upsaliensis. Abstracts of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Sciences, 629, 1–16.
  • HAUDE, R. and LANGENSTRASSEN, F. 1976. Rotassacus dentifer n. g. n. sp., ein devonischer Ophiocistioide (Echinodermata) mit ‘holothuroiden’ Wandskleriten und ‘echinoidem’ Kauapparat. Palontologische Zeitschrift, 50, 130–150.
  • HEDE, J. E. 1921. Gottlands silurstratigrafi. Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning C, avhandlingar och uppsatser, 305, 1–100.
  • HEDE, J. E. 1960. The Silurian of Gotland. In REGNÉLL, G. and HEDE, J. E. The Lower Palaeozoic of Scania. The Silurian of Gotland. Publications from the Institutes of Mineralogy, Palaeontology and Quaternary Geology, University of Lund, 91 , 44–89.
  • JENSEN, M. 1974. The Strongylocentrotidae (Echinoidea), a morphologic and systematic study. Sarsia, 57, 113–148.
  • JEPPSSON, L. 2005. Conodont-based revisions of the Late Ludfordian on Gotland, Sweden. GFF, 127, 273–282.
  • JEPSSON, L. 2008. The Lower Wenlock Hangvar Formation – a sequence previously split between the Högklint and Slite beds (Silurian, Gotland, Sweden). GFF, 130, 31–40.
  • JEPSSON, L., ERIKSSON, M. E. and CALNER, M. 2006. A latest Llandovery to latest Ludlow high-resolution biostratigraphy based on the Silurian of Gotland – a summary. GFF, 128, 109–114.
  • JESIONEK-SZYMAŃSKA, W. 1979. Morphology and microstructure of oligolamellar teeth in Paleozoic echinoids. Part I: teeth of some early lepidocentrid echinoids. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 24, 265–274.
  • JESIONEK SZYMANSKA, W. 1982. Morphology and microstructure of oligolamellar teeth in Paleozoic echinoids. Part 2. Givetian (Middle Devonian) stage of evolution of oligolamellar teeth. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 27, 195–211.
  • KUTSCHER, M. and REICH, M. 2004. Archaeocidarid and bothriocidarid Echinozoa from the Silurian of Gotland, Sweden. 457–458. In HEINZELLER, T. and NEBELSICK, J. (eds). Echinoderms: München. Proceedings of the 11 thInternational Echinoderms conference, Munich, Germany, 6–10 October 2003 . A. A. Balkema, Leiden, 633 pp.
  • LARSSON, K. 1979. Silurian tentaculitids from Gotland and Scania. Fossils and Strata, 11, 1–180.
  • LAUFELD, S. 1974. Reference localities for palaeontology and geology in the Silurian of Gotland. Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning C, avhandlingar och uppsatser, 705, 1–172.
  • LAUFELD, S. and BASSETT, M. G. 1981. Gotland: the anatomy of a Silurian carbonate platform. Episodes, 2, 23–27.
  • MÄRKEL, K. 1969. Morphologie der Seeigelzhne. II. Die gekielten Zhne der Echinacea (Echinodermata, Echinoidea). Zeitschrift für Morphologie der Tiere, 66, 1–50.
  • MÄRKEL, K. 1970a. Morphologie der Seeigelzhne. IV. Die Zhne von Laganum und Clypeaster. Zeitschrift für Morphologie der Tiere, 68, 370–389.
  • MÄRKEL, K. 1970b. The tooth skeleton of Echinometra mathaei (Blainville) (Echinodermata, Echinoidea). Annotations Zoologicae Japonenses, 43, 188–199.
  • MÄRKEL, K. 1974. Morphologie der Seeigelzhne. V. Die Zhne der Clypeasteroida. Zeitschrift für Morphologie der Tiere, 78, 221–256.
  • MÄRKEL, K. 1978. On the teeth of the recent cassiduloid Echinolampas depressa Gray, and on some liassic fossil teeth nearly identical in structure (Echinodermata, Echinoidea). Zoomorphology, 89, 125–144.
  • MÄRKEL, K. and GORNY, P. 1973. Zur funktionellen Anatomie der Seeigelzhne (Echinodermata: Echinoidea). Zeitschrift der Morphologie der Tiere, 75, 223–242.
  • MÄRKEL, K., GORNY, P. and ABRAHAM, K. 1977. Microarchitecture of sea urchin teeth. Fortschritte der Zoologie, 24, 103–114.
  • MÄRKEL, K. and TITSCHACK, H. 1969. Morphologie der Seeigelzhne. I. Der Zahn von Stylocidaris affinis (Phil.). Zeitschrift für Morphologie der Tiere, 64, 179–200.
  • MARTINSSON, A. 1958. Deep boring on Gotska Sandön. I. The submarine morphology of the Baltic Cambro–Silurian area. Bulletin of the Geological Institutions of the University of Uppsala, 38, 11–35.
  • PIOTROWSKI, A. 1983. Structure of teeth of the class Ophiocistioidea (Echinodermata). Bulletin de l’Academie Polonaise des Sciences (Serie des Sciences Biologiques, II), 29, [1981], 451–456.
  • PROKOP, R. J. 1996. Discovery of oligolamellar teeth in the Silurian of the Barrandian area (Czech Republic). Vestnik Ceského Geologického Ústavu, 71, 375–376.
  • REICH, M. 2001. Linguaserra? (Echinodermata: Ophiocistioidea) aus dem Ordovizium Baltoskandiens. In REICH, M. and HINZ-SHALLREUTER, I. (eds). 1. Arbeitstreffen deutchsprachiger Echinodermenforscher, Greifswald, 11 bis 13. Mai 2001 – Arbeiten und Kurzfassungen der Vortrge und Poster. Greifswalder Geowissenschaftliche Beitrge, 9 , 33–35.
  • REICH, M. 2007. Linguaserra spandeli sp. nov. (Echinodermata: Ophiocistioidea) from the Late Permian (Zechstein) of Thuringia, Germany. Annales de Paléontologie, 93, 317–330.
  • REICH, M. and HAUDE, R. 2004. Ophiocistioidea (fossil Echinodermata): an overview. 489–494. In HEINZELLER, T. and NEBELSICK, J. (eds). Echinoderms. München. Proceedings of the 11 thInternational Echinoderms conference, Munich, Germany, 6-10 October 2003 . A. A. Balkema, Leiden, 633 pp.
  • REICH, M. and KUTSCHER, M. 2001. Ophiocistioids and holothurians from the Silurian of Gotland (Sweden). 97–101. In BAKER, M. (ed.). Echinoderms 2000. Proceedings of the 10 thInternational Echinoderm Conference, Dunedin, 31 January – 4 February 2000 . A. A. Balkema, Lisse, 590 pp.
  • SCALLY, K. B. 1980. Echinoid thegosis: a study of tooth sharpening behaviour in an invertebrate. Australian Marine Science Bulletin, 71, 22–32.
  • SCHALLREUTER, R. 1981. Microfossilien aus Geschiebe. I. Melanoskleriten. Der Geschiebesammler, 15, 107–130.
  • SCHALLREUTER, R. 1982. Extraction of ostracods from siliceous rocks. 169–176. In BATE, R. H., ROBINSON, E. and SHEPPARD, L. M. (eds). Fossil and Recent Ostracods. Ellis Howard, Chichester, 492 pp.
  • SHACKLETON, J. D. 2005. Skeletal homologies, phylogeny and classification of the earliest asterozoan echinoderms. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 3, 29–114.
  • SMITH, A. B. 1981. Implications of lantern morphology for the phylogeny of post-Palaeozoic echinoids. Palaeontology, 24, 779–801.
  • SMITH, A. B. 1982. Tooth structure of the pygasteroid sea urchin Plesiechinus. Palaeontology, 25, 891–896.
  • SMITH, A. B. 1984. Echinoid palaeobiology. Allen and Unwin, London.
  • SMITH, A. B. and HOLLINGWORTH, N. T. J. 1990. Tooth structure and phylogeny of the Upper Permian echinoid Miocidaris keyserlingi. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 48, 47–60.
  • SMITH, A. B., PISANI, D., MACKENZIE-DODDS, J. A., STOCKLEY, B., WEBSTER, B. L. and LITTLEWOOD, D. T. J. 2006. Testing the molecular clock: molecular and paleontological estimates of divergence times in the Echinoidea (Echinodermata). Molecular Biology and Evolution, 23, 1832–1851.
  • WANG, R. Z., ADDADI, L. and WEINER, S. 1997. Design strategies of sea urchin teeth: Structure, composition and micromechanical relations to function. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Biological Sciences, 352, 469–480.
  • WISSING, F.-N. and HERRIG, E. (with cooperation of M. REICH) 1999. Arbeitstechniken der Mikropalontologie. Eine Einführung. Enke, Stuttgart, 191 pp.
PalAss Go! URL: | Twitter: Share on Twitter | Facebook: Share on Facebook | Google+: Share on Google+