Article: The Lower Cambrian eodiscoid trilobite Calodiscus lobatus from Sweden: morphology, ontogeny and distribution
Several thousand disarticulated remains together with a few complete enrolled specimens of the lower Cambrian eodiscoid trilobite Calodiscus lobatus (Hall, 1847) have been collected at two outcrop areas in Sweden. The material reveals new details of morphology and morphogenesis during ontogenetic development. Size-frequency analyses show that the material from the Fånån rivulet in Jämtland, central Sweden, represents a natural population dominated by juveniles, whereas the material from Gislövshammar in Scania, southern Sweden, has been sorted during postmortem transport. Three stages of protaspid development can be traced and defined as well as all subsequent ontogenetic stages for the cephalon, hypostome and pygidium. The early meraspid pygidium has a pronounced larval notch, which persists, though becoming progressively less distinct in later meraspides. The number of axial rings in the transitory pygidium increases throughout meraspid development until a third and final thoracic segment is liberated. During ontogeny the articulating half-rings are strongly developed, and both meraspides and holaspides were capable of full sphaeroidal enrollment and outstretched postures. The hypostome undergoes some dramatic modifications; in M0 the anterior margin is axe-shaped, by M1 the area of attachment greatly decreases and the hypostome becomes more elongated and pear-shaped, before attaining its adult form, which has an overall resemblance to that of polymerid trilobites. During ontogeny, the hypostome changes from a conterminant attachment to a natant condition, thereby mirroring hypostomal evolution within trilobites generally. The morphology, ontogeny, enrollment, hypostomal development and the presence of calcified protaspides suggest polymerid rather than agnostoid affinities of the eodiscoids.