Article: The Jurassic bivalve genus Placunopsis: new evidence on anatomy and affinities
Jonathan A. Todd and Timothy J. Palmer
The Jurassic bivalve genus Placunopsis Morris and Lycett, 1853 is shown to be an anomiid on account of the detailed anatomy of its hitherto unknown right valve and the corresponding musculature in the left valve. Herein the most appropriate choice for type species is considered to be P. inaequalis (Phillips, 1829), which accommodates a number of the larger Late Jurassic nominal species. A species from the English Bathonian previously confused with P. inaequalis is described as P. fuersichi sp. nov. Placunopsis inaequalis is shown to be closely related to Recent Pododesmus, which has previously been interpreted as the most 'primitive' of the extant anomiids on the basis of its anatomy. There is thus no need to retain a separate family for the genus, as has been proposed by some workers. The distinct small species P. socialis Morris and Lycett, 1853 can also be assigned to the anomiids on the basis of the differences between the structure of the outer layers in the two valves, and the presence of a byssal foramen. There is some suggestion of calcification of the byssus, but not enough detail is known of its musculature to justify transferring it to the genus Juranomia Fursich and Werner, 1989 at this stage. The cemented bivalves traditionally referred to Placunopsis that are so common in the European Muschelkalk (Triassic) are not anomiids and thus require systematic revision.