Article: Acanthodian fish remains from the Upper Silurian or Lower Devonian of the Amazon Basin, Brazil
Acanthodian spines, scales, and tooth whorls are described from the Pitinga Member of the Trombetas Formation (Middle Amazon Basin, northern Brazil). The spines and dermal scutes are of climatiid type, but the associated tooth whorl is more like that of an ischnacanthid. This acanthodian assemblage is quite similar to that from the top of the Catavi Formation of Bolivia, where an association of thelodont scales suggests an Early Devonian age. The new acanthodian remains from Brazil are unlikely to be older than the latest Silurian, thus refuting previous ideas that the richly fossiliferous Pitinga Member was Ordovician in age.