Article: Late Cretaceous gymnosperms from Sakhalin and the terminal Cretaceous event
In the Late Cretaceous, diversity of gymnospermous orders increased due to the appearance of true Cycadales. Most groups experienced important evolutionary changes. Extant genera first appeared among Cycadales (Cycas), Ginkgoales, and Coniferales. Noteworthy evolutionary innovations were phylloclades in the Cupressaceae and distinctive stomatal types in the Araucariaceae. Sequoia and Parataxodium achieved dominant status. At the Cretaceous Tertiary boundary, the Caytoniales, Bennettitales, and Nilssoniales died out. There was replacement of dominant genera among conifers and of dominant leaf morphotypes among angiosperms. Major type of the Late Cretaceous vegetation—Sequoia-laurophyllous forest—perished and gave way to mixed broad-leaved forests.