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Article: Revisiting the molluscan fauna from the Cambrian (Series 2, stages 3–4) Xinji Formation of North China

Papers in Palaeontology - Volume 7 Issue 1 - Cover
Publication: Palaeontology
Volume: 7
Part: 1
Publication Date: Febuary 2021
Page(s): 521 564
Author(s): Luoyang Li, Xingliang Zhang, Christian B. Skovsted, Hao Yun, Bing Pan, and Guoxiang Li
DOI: 10.1002/spp2.1289
Addition Information

How to Cite

LI, L., ZHANG, X., SKOVSTED, C.B., YUN, H., PAN, B., LI, G. 2021. . Papers in Palaeontology, 7, 1, 521-564. DOI: /doi/10.1002/spp2.1289

Author Information

  • Luoyang Li - State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Early Life & Environments Department of Geology Northwest University Xi'an 710069 China
  • Luoyang Li - Department of Palaeobiology Swedish Museum of Natural History Box 50007 SE‐104 05 Stockholm Sweden
  • Xingliang Zhang - State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Early Life & Environments Department of Geology Northwest University Xi'an 710069 China
  • Christian B. Skovsted - State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Early Life & Environments Department of Geology Northwest University Xi'an 710069 China
  • Christian B. Skovsted - Department of Palaeobiology Swedish Museum of Natural History Box 50007 SE‐104 05 Stockholm Sweden
  • Hao Yun - State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Early Life & Environments Department of Geology Northwest University Xi'an 710069 China
  • Bing Pan - Department of Palaeobiology Swedish Museum of Natural History Box 50007 SE‐104 05 Stockholm Sweden
  • Bing Pan - State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy Nanjing Institute of Geology & Palaeontology Chinese Academy of Sciences Nanjing 210008 China
  • Guoxiang Li - State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy Nanjing Institute of Geology & Palaeontology Chinese Academy of Sciences Nanjing 210008 China

Publication History

  • Issue published online: 08 March 2021
  • Manuscript Accepted: 13 July 2019
  • Manuscript Received: 31 October 2018

Funded By

National Key Research and Development Program. Grant Number: Grant 2017YFC0603101
Natural Science Foundation of China. Grant Numbers: 41621003, 41890840
Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences. Grant Number: Grant XDB26000000
111 Project. Grant Number: D17013
Swedish Research Council. Grant Number: VR2016‐04610

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Abstract

A diverse group of molluscs from the Cambrian Series 2, Stages 3–4 Xinji Formation of the North China Block (NCB) is described, based on more than 4500 specimens from three well‐studied sections in Shaanxi and Henan provinces, along the southern and southwestern margin of the NCB. Twenty molluscan species are identified, including one bivalve, three stem group gastropods, and 16 additional helcionelloids. Among these, six helcionelloid species are reported from the NCB for the first time, and one new species, Parailsanella luonanensis sp. nov. is proposed. This diverse molluscan fauna shares a large number of species with contemporaneous faunas of South Australia (15), Antarctica (7), Laurentia (6), Siberia (3) and South China (1). Faunal similarities are even greater on a generic level. The striking similarities of the molluscan faunas of North China, South Australia and Antarctica strongly support the hypothesis that the NCB was situated close to Eastern Gondwana, most likely close to South Australia in the Cambrian Epoch 2. In addition, well‐preserved shell attachment muscle scars were observed in the helcionelloid Figurina figurina, with two pairs of symmetrical, continuous, band‐like muscle scars, which are obviously different from the musculature of both gastropods and monoplacophorans. Because of this unique musculature, these characteristic Cambrian cap‐like molluscs are assigned to the Helcionelloida rather than to the Gastropoda or Monoplacophora.

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to John S. Peel, Thomas M. Claybourn (Uppsala University), Marissa J. Betts (University of New England) and Timothy P. Topper (Swedish Museum of Natural History) for valuable discussions and kind suggestions. Great thanks also go to Xin Wang and Yuan Zhang (Northwest University) for their assistance in fieldwork. This research was supported by funds from the National Key Research and Development Program (Grant 2017YFC0603101), Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants 41621003 and 41890840), the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant XDB26000000), 111 Project (D17013), and Swedish Research Council (Grant VR2016‐04610). Three anonymous referees commented on an earlier version of the manuscript.

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