Article: Brachiopod associations from the Middle Ordovician of the Oslo Region, Norway
The marine upper Darriwilian (Middle Ordovician) Elnes Formation of southern Norway contains very rich and diverse invertebrate faunas. Stratigraphically detailed recent collections of these well-preserved faunas have permitted a more thorough description of the various faunal groups and their preferences in the late Middle Ordovician of the Oslo Region, southern Norway, than ever before. The brachiopod faunas are described in the present article, which include a new genus and a new species respectively Wandaasella modheimrensis and Cyclomyonia vikersundi. The brachiopod fauna is largely dominated by linguliformeans although some sections of the formation are dominated by the plectambonitoids Alwynella ildjernensis Spjeldnæs or Cathrynia aequistriata (Hadding) or by orthid brachiopods. Statistical analysis of the brachiopod fauna reveals that the general depositional trend of the Elnes Formation is that of a regressive event from the lower part of the Sjøstrand Member to the Håkavik Member. Three main brachiopod associations are recognised: a deep-water, lingulid dominated association associated with quiet and dysoxic bottom conditions, a sowerbyellid dominated association (e.g. Cathrynia and Alwynella) found in muddy to marly deposits formed around maximal storm wave base and an orthid-dominated association representing an environment characterised by a fairly coarse or hard bottom substrate formed well above storm wave base but below fair weather wave base.