Article: Wuchiapingian (Lopingian, Late Permian) brachiopods from the Episkopi Formation of Hydra Island, Greece
Twenty-three species of silicified brachiopods are described from four samples in the middle and upper parts of the Episkopi Formation from Hydra Island, Greece. These brachiopods are newly recorded from the region and together with previously described brachiopods from the same localities constitute the most diverse Lopingian (Late Permian) brachiopod fauna reported in southern Europe. The brachiopod fauna is Wuchiapingian as indicated by the associated conodonts. The fauna from Hydra exhibits strong palaeobiogeographical links with the faunas from South China. In addition, palaeobiogeographical affinities with the faunas of Thailand and the northern peri-Gondwanan region are also present, which implies a peri-Gondwanan origin for Hydra. Palaeoecologically, the brachiopod assemblage from sample EP in the middle part of the Episkopi Formation is dominated by pedically-attached and cementing genera and reflects moderate energy conditions above storm wave base and an abundance of hard substrates provided by sponges in the biohermal habitat. By contrast, the brachiopod assemblage in the other three samples from the upper part of the Episkopi Formation is dominated by spinose genera with a free-resting life habit, suggesting soft substrates in a quiet water environment below storm wave base on the outer part of the shelf. New taxa are Petinospiriferina gen. nov., Hustedia episkopiensis sp. nov., Waterhouseiella hydraensis sp. nov. and Xenosaria tenuis sp. nov.