Article: Upper Ordovician bryozoans of the Pin Formation (Spiti Valley, northern India)
Twenty-nine species of bryozoans from the Upper Ordovician-Lower Silurian Pin Formation (Spiti, India) have been identified. Eight of these are new: Trematopora minima, Ulrichostylus bhargavai, Ptilodictya exiliformis, Phaenopora ordinarius, Oanduellina himalayaica, Pesnastylus? vesiculosum, Ralfina? originalis and Pinocladia triangulata. The fossil record and facies analyses of the area investigated indicate shallow-water conditions within the subtropical-tropical realm. The distribution pattern of fossils among the Ordovician/Silurian succession on the Northern Gondwana shelf and the influence of the Late Ordovician cooling phases on marine organisms are distinctive owing to a dramatic reduction in diversity globally. As far as the bryozoan taxa of Spiti are concerned, only one (Helopora fragilis) of the 29 species was recorded above the Ordovician/Silurian boundary. Observed bryozoan communities are very similar to faunas of Laurentia, the Baltic, Siberia and southern China of early-late Ordovician age.