Article: Two Palaeozoic hydrothermal vent communities from the southern Ural Mountains, Russia
Crispin T. S. Little, Valeriy V. Maslennikov, Noel J. Morris and Alexander P. Gubanov
The Sibay and Yaman Kasy massive sulphide deposits contain macrofossil assemblages that represent some of the oldest known hydrothermal vent communities. The deposits are hosted respectively by Middle Devonian and Silurian arc-related volcanic rocks in the Ural Mountains of Russia, and formed under the same environmental constraints as modern vent sulphides. The Sibay palaeocommunity comprises, in order of decreasing abundance, tubes of an indeterminate ?annelid and the vestimentiferan Tevidestus serrriformis Shpanskaya, Maslennikov and Little and articulated specimens of the modiomorphid bivalve Sibaya ivanovi gen. et sp. nov. The Yaman Kasy palaeocommunity comprises, in order of decreasing abundance, tubes of the ?polychaete Eoalvinellodes annulatus gen. et sp. nov. and the vestimentiferan Yamankasia rifeia Shpanskaya, Maslennikov and Little, and specimens of the ?kirengellid tergomyan Themoconus shadlunae gen. et sp. nov., the lingulate brachiopod Pyrodiscus lorrainae gen. et sp. nov., an indeterminate vetigastropod, and the ambonychiid bivalve Mytilarca sp. Some of these taxa have affinities to endemic taxa at modern hydrothermal vent sites and some belong to taxa that are typical of Palaeozoic non-vent marine palaeocommunities. Therefore, there has been movement of taxonomic groups in and out of the vent ecosystem through the Phanerozoic.