A new double‐armoured herring of the clupeomorph order Ellimmichthyiformes, Eoellimmichthys superstes gen. et sp. nov., is described herein based on a single partially complete specimen from the early Eocene Pesciara site of the Bolca Konservat‐Lagerstätte, north‐eastern Italy. The fossil documented herein exhibits a unique combination of features (e.g. ornamentation of the skull bones; medial fusion of the contralateral halves of the neural arches of abdominal vertebrae; teeth on endopterygoid, parhypural fused to the first preural centrum; presence of a short series of 6 (or 7) predorsal scutes increasing in size posteriorly; postpelvic scutes bearing very prominent spines), which clearly supports its recognition as a new genus and species of the family Paraclupeidae. Evidence is provided to show that Eoellimmichthys gen. nov. is most closely related phylogenetically to the Early Cretaceous genus Ellimmichthys. The new taxon described herein represents the youngest marine occurrence of the family Paraclupeidae and, more generally, of the order Ellimmichthyiformes, suggesting that the shallow marine settings of the Tethys might have favoured the persistence of certain fish lineages that were severely affected by the end‐Cretaceous mass extinction.