Skip to content Skip to navigation

Article: Vetulicolians from the Lower Cambrian Sirius Passet Lagerstätte, North Greenland, and the polarity of morphological characters in basal deuterostomes

Publication: Palaeontology
Volume: 54
Part: 3
Publication Date: May 2011
Page(s): 711 719
Author(s): Jakob Vinther, M. Paul Smith and David A. T. Harper
Addition Information

How to Cite

VINTHER, J., SMITH, M., HARPER, D. A. T. 2011. Vetulicolians from the Lower Cambrian Sirius Passet Lagerstätte, North Greenland, and the polarity of morphological characters in basal deuterostomes. Palaeontology54, 3, 711–719.

Online Version Hosted By

Wiley Online Library
Get Article: Wiley Online Library [Pay-to-View Access] |


  • ALDRIDGE, R. J., HOU, X.-G., SIVETER, D. J., SIVETER, D. J. and GABBOTT, S. E. 2007. The systematics and phylogenetic relationships of vetulicolians. Palaeontology, 50, 131–168.
  • ARONOWICZ, J. and LOWE, C. J. 2006. Hox gene expression in the hemichordate Saccoglossus kowalevskii and the evolution of deuterostome nervous systems. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 46, 890–901.
  • BABCOCK, L. E. and PENG, S. C. 2007. Cambrian chronostratigraphy: current state and future plans. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 254, 62–66.
  • BABCOCK, L. E., PENG, S. C., GEYER, G. and SHERGOLD, J. H. 2005. Changing perspectives on Cambrian chronostratigraphy and progress toward subdivision of the Cambrian System. Geoscience Journal, 9, 101–106.
  • BALTHASAR, U. and BUTTERFIELD, N. J. 2009. Early Cambrian “soft-shelled” brachiopods as possible stem-group phoronids. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 54, 307–314.
  • BLAIR, J. E. and HEDGES, S. B. 2005. Molecular phylogeny and divergence times of deuterostome animals. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 22, 2275–2284.
  • BLAKER, M. R. 1988. A new genus of nevadiid trilobite from the Buen Formation (Early Cambrian) of Peary Land, central North Greenland. Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse Rapport, 137, 33–41.
  • BLAKER, M. R. and PEEL, J. S. 1997. Lower Cambrian trilobites from North Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland, Geoscience, 35, 1–145.
  • BOURLAT, S. J., JULIUSDOTTIR, T., LOWE, C. J., FREEMAN, R., ARONOWICZ, J., KIRSCHNER, M., LANDER, E. S., THORNDYKE, M., NAKANO, H., KOHN, A. B., HEYLAND, A., MOROZ, L. L., COPLEY, R. R. and TELFORD, M. J. 2006. Deuterostome phylogeny reveals monophyletic chordates and the new phylum Xenoturbellida. Nature, 444, 85–88.
  • BOURLAT, S. J., JULIUSDOTTIR, T., LOCKYER, A. E., LITTLEWOOD, D. T. J. and TELFORD, M. J. 2003. Xenoturbella is a deuterostome that eats molluscs. Nature, 424, 925–928.
  • BOURLAT, S. J., ROTA-STABELLI, O., LANFEAR, R. and TELFORD, M. J. 2009. The mitochondrial genome structure of Xenoturbella bocki (phylum Xenoturbellida) is ancestral within the deuterostomes. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 9, article number 107.
  • BRIGGS, D. E. G., LIEBERMAN, B. S., HALGEDAHL, S. L. and JARRARD, R. D. 2005. A new metazoan from the Middle Cambrian of Utah and the nature of the Vetulicolia. Palaeontology, 48, 681–686.
  • BUDD, G. E. 1995. Kleptothule rasmusseni gen et sp. nov.: an ?olenellinid-like trilobite from the Sirius Passet fauna (Buen Formation, Lower Cambrian, North Greenland). Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Earth Sciences, 86, 1–12.
  • BUDD, G. E. 1997. Stem group arthropods from the Lower Cambrian Sirius Passet fauna of North Greenland. 125–138. In FORTEY, R. A. and THOMAS, R. H. (eds). Arthropod relationships, Systematics Association, Special Volume, 55, Chapman & Hall, London, 383 pp.
  • BUDD, G. E. in press. Campanamuta mantonae gen. et sp. nov., an exceptionally preserved arthropod from the Sirius Passet fauna (Buen Formation, Lower Cambrian, North Greenland). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology.
  • BUDD, G. E. and TELFORD, M. J. 2009. The origin and evolution of arthropods. Nature, 457, 812–817.
  • CARON, J.-B. 2001. The limbless animal Banffia constricta from the Burgess Shale (Middle Cambrian, Canada), a stem-group arthropod? North American Paleontological Convention 2001, Program and Abstracts. PaleoBios, 21 (Suppl. 2), 39.
  • CARON, J.-B. 2006 (for 2005). Banffia constricta, a putative vetulicolid from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Earth Sciences, 96, 95–111.
  • CARON, J.-B., CONWAY MORRIS, S. and SHU, D.-G. 2010. Tentaculate fossils from the Cambrian of Canada (British Columbia) and China (Yunnan) interpreted as primitive deuterostomes. PLOS ONE, 5, A189–A201.
  • CHEN, J.-Y. 2004. The dawn of the animal world. Jiangsu Publishing House of Science and Technology, Nanjing, China, 366 pp. [In Chinese].
  • CHEN, J.-Y. and ZHOU, G.-Q. 1997. Biology of the Chengjiang fauna. Bulletin National Museum Natural Science Taiwan, 10, 11–105.
  • CONWAY MORRIS, S. and PEEL, J. S. 2008. The earliest annelids: Lower Cambrian polychaetes from the Sirius Passet Lagersttte, Peary Land, North Greenland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 53, 137–148.
  • DELSUC, F., BRINKMANN, H., CHOURROUT, D. and PHILIPPE, H. 2006. Tunicates and not cephalochordates are the closest living relatives of vertebrates. Nature, 439, 965–968.
  • DELSUC, F., TSAGKOGEORGA, G., LARTILLOT, N. and PHILIPPE, H. 2008. Additional molecular support for the new chordate phylogeny. Genesis, 46, 592–604.
  • DONOGHUE, P. C. J. and PURNELL, M. A. 2009. Distinguishing heat from light in debate over controversial fossils. Bioessays, 31, 178–189.
  • EDGECOMBE, G. D. 2010. Arthropod phylogeny: an overview from the perspectives of morphology, molecular data and the fossil record. Arthropod Structure and Development, 39, 74–87.
  • GANS, C. and NORTHCUTT, R. G. 1983. Neural crest and the origin of vertebrates – a new head. Science, 220, 268–273.
  • GARCÍA-BELLIDO, D. C., PATERSON, J. R., EDGECOMBE, G. D., JAGO, J. B., GEHLING, J. G. and LEE, M. S. Y. 2010. A vetulicolid-banffozoan intermediate from the Early Cambrian Emu Bay Shale Lagersttte, South Australia. Third International Palaeontological Congress, London 2010, Abstracts, 177.
  • GEE, H. 2001. On being vetulicolian. Nature, 414, 407–409.
  • GERHART, J., LOWE, C. and KIRSCHNER, M. 2005. Hemichordates and the origin of chordates. Current Opinion in Genetics and Development, 15, 461–467.
  • HALANYCH, K. M. 1995. The phylogenetic position of the pterobranch hemichordates based on 18S rDNA sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 4, 72–76.
  • HEJNOL, A., OBST, M., STAMATAKIS, A., OTT, M., ROUSE, G. W., EDGECOMBE, G. D., MARTINEZ, P., BAGUNA, J., BAILLY, X., JONDELIUS, U., WIENS, M., MULLER, W. E. G., WERNER, E. G., SEAVER, E., WHEELER, W. C., MARTINDALE, M. Q., GIRIBET, G. and DUNN, C. W. 2009. Assessing the root of bilaterian animals with scalable phylogenomic methods. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 276, 4261–4270.
  • HIGGINS, A. K., INESON, J. R., PEEL, J. S., SURLYK, F. and SØNDERHOLM, M. 1991. The Franklinian Basin in North Greenland. Bulletin Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse, 160, 71–139.
  • HOU, X.-G. 1987. Early Cambrian large bivalved arthropods from Chengjiang, eastern Yunnan. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 26, 286–298.
  • HOU, X.-G. and BERGSTRÖM, J. 1997. Arthropods of the Lower Cambrian Chengjiang fauna, southwest China. Fossils and Strata, 45, 1–116.
  • LACALLI, T. C. 2002. Vetulicolians – are they deuterostomes? chordates? BioEssays, 24, 208–211.
  • LAGEBRO, L., STEIN, M. and PEEL, J. S. 2009. A new ?lamellipedian arthropod from the early Cambrian Sirius Passet Fauna of North Greenland. Journal of Paleontology, 83, 820–825.
  • LOWE, C. J., WU, M., SALIC, A., EVANS, L., LANDER, E., STANGE-THOMANN, N., GRUBER, C. E., GERHART, J. and KIRSCHNER, M. 2003. Anteroposterior patterning in hemichordates and the origins of the chordate nervous system. Cell, 113, 853–865.
  • LUO HUI-LIN, HU SHI-XUE, CHEN LIANG-ZHONG, ZHANG SHISHAN and TAO YONG-HE 1999. Early Cambrian Chengjiang fauna from Kunming Region, China. Yunnan Science and Technology Press, Kunming, 16+129 pp., 32pls. [In Chinese, English summary].
  • METCHNIKOFF, V. E. 1881. Zur Lehre fiber die intracellulare Verdauung niederer Tiere. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 4, 139–157.
  • NIELSEN, C. 2010. After all Xenoturbella is an acoelomorph! Evolution & Development, 12, 241–243.
  • NORTHCUTT, R. G. and GANS, C. 1983. The genesis of neural crest and epidermal placodes – a reinterpretation of vertebrate origins. Quarterly Review of Biology, 58, 1–28.
  • PEEL, J. S. 2010. A corset-like fossil from the Cambrian Sirius Passet Lagersttte of North Greenland and its implications for cycloneuralian evolution. Journal of Paleontology, 84, 332–340.
  • PENG, S. and BABCOCK, L. 2008. Cambrian Period. 37–46. In OGG, J. G., OGG, G. and GRADSTEIN, F. M. (eds). The concise geologic time scale. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 177 pp.
  • PHILIPPE, H., DERELLE, R., LOPEZ, P., PICK, K., BORCHIELLINI, C., BOURY-ESNAULT, N., VACELET, J., RENARD, E., HOULISTON, E., QUEINNEC, E., DA SILVA, C., WINCKER, P., LE GUYADER, H., LEYS, S., JACKSON, D. J., SCHREIBER, F., ERPENBECK, D., MORGENSTERN, B., WORHEIDE, G. and MANUEL, M. 2009. Phylogenomics revives traditional views on deep animal relationships. Current Biology, 19, 706–712.
  • ROTA-STABELLI, O., CAMPBELL, L., BRINKMANN, H., EDGECOMBE, G. D., LONGHORN, S. J., PETERSON, K. J., PISANI, D., PHILIPPE, H. and TELFORD, M. J. 2011. A congruent solution to arthropod phylogeny: phylogenomics, microRNAs and morphology support monophyletic Mandibulata. Proc. R. Soc. B, 278, 298–306.
  • RUTA, M. 1999. Brief review of the stylophoran debate. Evolution & Development, 1, 123–135.
  • SANSOM, R. S., GABBOTT, S. E. and PURNELL, M. A. 2010. Non-random decay of chordate characters causes bias in fossil interpretation. Nature, 463, 797–800.
  • SHU, D.-G. 2005. On the phylum Vetulicolia. Chinese Science Bulletin, 50, 2342–2354.
  • SHU, D.-G., CONWAY MORRIS, S., HAN, J., CHEN, L., ZHANG, X.-L., ZHANG, Z.-F., LIU, H.-Q., LI, Y. and LIU, J.-N. 2001. Primitive deuterostomes from the Chengjiang Lagersttte (Lower Cambrian, China). Nature, 414, 419–424.
  • SHU, D.-G., CONWAY MORRIS, S., ZHANG, Z.-F. and HAN, J. 2010. The earliest history of the deuterostomes: the importance of the Chengjiang Fossil-Lagersttte. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 277, 165–174.
  • SKOVSTED, C. B., BALTHASAR, U., BROCK, G. A. and PATERSON, J. R. 2009. The tommotiid Camenella reticulosa from the early Cambrian of South Australia: morphology, scleritome reconstruction, and phylogeny. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 54, 525–540.
  • SKOVSTED, C. B., BROCK, G. A., PATERSON, J. R., HOLMER, L. E. and BUDD, G. E. 2008. The scleritome of Eccentrotheca from the Lower Cambrian of South Australia: lophophorate affinities and implications for tommotiid phylogeny. Geology, 36, 171–174.
  • SMITH, A. B. 2005. The pre-radial history of echinoderms. Geological Journal, 40, 255–280.
  • SUMRALL, C. D. and WRAY, G. A. 2007. Ontogeny in the fossil record: diversification of body plans and the evolution of ‘aberrant’ symmetry in Paleozoic echinoderms. Paleobiology, 33, 149–163.
  • SWALLA, B. J. and SMITH, A. B. 2008. Deciphering deuterostome phylogeny: molecular, morphological and palaeontological perspectives. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 363, 1557–1568.
PalAss Go! URL: | Twitter: Share on Twitter | Facebook: Share on Facebook | Google+: Share on Google+