Article: High concentration of long-snouted beaked whales (genus Messapicetus) from the Miocene of Peru
Eight skulls of beaked whales (Cetacea, Odontoceti, Ziphiidae), in six cases associated with elements of the mandible, were collected from a limited area (about 1.5 km2) and roughly from the same stratigraphic horizon at Cerro Colorado, 35 km south-south-west of the city of Ica (Peru), where the late Middle Miocene basal strata of the Pisco Formation crop out. They represent the highest concentration reported of fossil Ziphiidae. These finely preserved Cerro Colorado fossils are described and assigned to a new species Messapicetus gregarius, together with another specimen collected from sediments of the same age at Cerro la Bruja (33 km south-east to Cerro Colorado). Messapicetus gregarius shares with M. longirostris Bianucci, Landini and Varola, 1992 (Tortonian of Italy), an extremely elongated rostrum, but is clearly different from the Italian species in the more distinct maxillary tubercle and prominential notch, the more robust premaxillary crest, and the abrupt ventrolateral descent of the medial margin of the maxilla from the vertex. A parsimony analysis reveals that Messapicetus belongs to a basal clade, which includes other ziphiids with a dorsally closed mesorostral groove and prenarial basin. The high concentration of specimens belonging to the same species (some of them tentatively identified as adult males and females), combined with the presence of a calf, supports the hypothesis of site fidelity; these cetaceans might have lived in a limited region for a long period for both breeding and feeding. Besides the eight specimens of M. gregarius, strata at Cerro Colorado include many other cetacean remains (with several specimens of the pontoporiid Brachydelphis including a foetus), pinnipeds, turtles, fishes, and birds.