Article: Australasian Typhinae (Gastropoda) with notes on the subfamily
The Typhinae are a rare but widely distributed Muricid group. Because of their rarity they are of little value for local geological correlation, but are useful for regional correlation and palaeogeography, and as facies indicators.Tertiary distributions indicate distinct American and Australo-European provinces and probably a third, Javanese province. The modern American fauna remains distinct. The single living European species is related to a living species on the west coast of South and Central America. Typhina and Siphonochelus each have closely related species living in Australia, New Zealand, the Indo-Pacific, the South Atlantic, and the Carribean, showing a remarkable parallelism in their distribution, and are believed to have radiated simultaneously from Australia.Two New Zealand species are members of a Tertiary endemic lineage. The remaining ten are not closely related to one another. Four are certainly related to distant overseas groups of similar age; five are possibly related to overseas groups of similar age; one is not closely related to any other known species.The superspecific classification proposed by Keen (1944) is modified, her groups being redefined in terms of varix types. The new genus Rugotyphis and the new subgenus Neotyphis are described. The following genera and subgenera are recognized in Australia and New Zealand: Typhis (subgenera Typhis, Hirtotyphis, Neotyphis), Rugotyphis, Typhina (subgenus Typhina), Siphonochelus, Lyrotyphis, Semityphis. A check list of Australasian species with revised generic groupings is given. Twelve New Zealand species (eight new) and four Australian species are described.